||Chapter Three: Nature, Nurture and Human Diversity
Chapter Three Objectives
Objective 1| Give examples of differences and similarities within the human family.
Objective 2| Describe the types of questions that interest behavior geneticists.
Objective 3| Define chromosome, DNA, gene, and genome, and describe their relationships.
Objective 4| Explain how identical and fraternal twins differ, and cite ways that behavior geneticists use twin studies to understand the effects of environment and heredity.
Objective 5| Cite ways that behavior geneticists use adoption studies to understand the effects of environment and heredity.
Objective 6| Discuss how the relative stability of our temperament illustrates the influence of heredity on development.
Objective 7| Discuss heritability’s application to individuals and groups, and explain what we mean when we say genes are self-regulating.
Objective 8| Give an example of a genetically influenced trait that can evoke responses in others, and give another example of an environment that can trigger gene activity.
Objective 9| Identify the potential promise and perils of molecular genetics research.
Objective 10| Describe the area of psychology that interests evolutionary psychologists.
Objective 11| State the principle of natural selection, and point out some possible effects of natural selection in the development of human characteristics.
Objective 12| Identify some gender differences in sexuality.
Objective 13| Describe evolutionary explanations for gender differences in sexuality.
Objective 14| Summarize the criticisms of evolutionary explanations of human behaviors, and describe the evolutionary psychologists’ responses to those criticisms.
Objective 15| Describe some of the conditions that can affect development before birth.
Objective 16| Describe how experience can modify the brain.
Objective 17| Explain why we should be careful in attributing children’s successes and failures to their parents’ influence.
Objective 18| Evaluate the importance of peer influence on development.
Objective 19| Discuss the survival benefits of culture.
Objective 20| Describe some ways that cultures differ.
Objective 21| Explain why changes in the human gene pool cannot account for culture change over time.
Objective 22| Identify some ways a primarily individualist culture differs from a primarily collectivist culture, and compare their effects on personal identity.
Objective 23| Describe some ways that child-rearing differs in individualist and collectivist cultures.
Objective 24| Describe some ways that humans are similar, despite their cultural differences.
Objective 25| Identify some biological and psychological differences between males and females.
Objective 26| Summarize the gender gap in aggression.
Objective 27| Describe some gender differences in social power.
Objective 28| Discuss gender differences in connectedness, or the ability to “tend and befriend.”
Objective 29| Explain how biological sex is determined, and describe the role of sex hormones in biological development and gender differences.
Objective 30| Discuss the importance of environment in the development of gender roles, and describe two theories of gendertyping.
Objective 31| Describe the biopsychosocial approach to development.