||Chapter Four: Developing Through the Life Span
Chapter Four Objectives
Objective 1 | State the three areas of change that developmental psychologists study, and identify the three major issues in developmental psychology.
Objective 2| Describe the union of sperm and egg at conception.
Objective 3| Define zygote, embryo, and fetus, and explain how teratogens can affect development.
Objective 4| Describe some abilities of the newborn, and explain how researchers use habituation to assess infant sensory and cognitive abilities.
Objective 5| Describe some developmental changes in a child’s brain, and explain why maturation accounts for many of our similarities.
Objective 6| Outline four events in the motor development sequence from birth to toddlerhood, and evaluate the effects of maturation and experience on that sequence.
Objective 7| Explain why we have few memories of experiences during our first three years of life.
Objective 8| State Piaget’s understanding of how the mind develops, and discuss the importance of assimilation and accommodation in this process.
Objective 9| Outline Piaget’s four main stages of cognitive development, and comment on how children’s thinking changes during these four stages.
Objective 10| Discuss psychologists’ current views on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Objective 11| Define stranger anxiety.
Objective 12| Discuss the effects of nourishment, body contact, and familiarity on infant social attachment.
Objective 13| Contrast secure and insecure attachment, and discuss the roles of parents and infants in the development of attachment and an infant’s feelings of basic trust.
Objective 14| Assess the impact of parental neglect, family disruption, and day care on attachment patterns and development.
Objective 15| Trace the onset and development of children’s self-concept.
Objective 16| Describe three parenting styles, and offer three potential explanations for the link between authoritative parenting and social competence.
Objective 17| Define adolescence.
Objective 18| Identify the major physical changes during adolescence.
Objective 19| Describe the changes in reasoning abilities that Piaget called formal operations.
Objective 20| Discuss moral development from the perspectives of moral thinking, moral feeling, and moral action.
Objective 21| Identify Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development and their accompanying issues.
Objective 22| Explain how the search for identity affects us during adolescence, and discuss how forming an identity prepares us for intimacy.
Objective 23| Contrast parental and peer influences during adolescence.
Objective 24| Discuss the characteristics of emerging adulthood.
Objective 25| Identify the major physical changes that occur in middle adulthood.
Objective 26| Compare life expectancy in the mid-twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, and discuss changes in sensory abilities and health (including frequency of dementia) in older adults.
Objective 27| Assess the impact of aging on recall and recognition in adulthood.
Objective 28| Summarize the contributions of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to our understanding of the normal effects of aging on adult intelligence.
Objective 29| Explain why the path of adult development need not be tightly linked to one’s chronological age.
Objective 30| Discuss the importance of love, marriage, and children in adulthood, and comment on the contribution of one’s work to feelings of self-satisfaction.
Objective 31| Describe trends in people’s life satisfaction across the life span.
Objective 32| Describe the range of reactions to the death of loved one.
Objective 33| Summarize current views on continuity versus stages and stability versus change in lifelong development.