||Chapter Five: Sensation
Chapter Five Objectives
Objective 1 | Contrast sensation and perception, and explain the difference between bottom-up and top-down processing.
Objective 2| Distinguish between absolute and difference thresholds, and discuss whether we can sense stimuli below our absolute thresholds and be influenced by them.
Objective 3| Describe sensory adaptation, and explain how we benefit from being unaware of unchanging stimuli. Sensory adaptation is our diminished sensitivity to constant or routine odors, sounds, and touches. We benefit from this phenomenon because it focuses our attention on informative changes in stimulation, rather than on unchanging elements in our environment.
Objective 4| Define transduction, and specify the form of energy our visual system converts into the neural messages our brain can interpret.
Objective 5| Describe the major structures of the eye, and explain how they guide an incoming ray of light toward the eye’s receptor cells.
Objective 6| Contrast the two types of receptor cells in the retina, and describe the retina’s reaction to light.
Objective 7 | Discuss the different levels of processing of visual information traveling from the eye’s retina to the brain’s cortex.
Objective 8| Define parallel processing, and discuss its role in visual information processing.
Objective 9| Explain how the Young-Helmholtz and opponent process theories help us understand color vision.
Objective 10 | Explain the importance of color constancy.
Objective 11 | Describe the pressure waves we experience as sound.
Objective 12 | Describe the three regions of the ear, and outline the series of events that triggers the electrical impulses sent to the brain.
Objective 13 | Contrast the place and frequency theories, and explain how they help us to understand pitch perception.
Objective 14| Describe how we pinpoint sounds.
Objective 15 | Contrast the two types of hearing loss, and describe some of their causes.
Objective 16| Describe how cochlear implants function, and explain why Deaf culture advocates object to these devices.
Objective 17 | Describe the sense of touch.
Objective 18| State the purpose of pain, and describe the biopsychosocial perspective on pain.
Objective19| Describe the sense of taste, and explain the principle of sensory interaction.
Objective 20| Describe the sense of smell, and explain why specific odors so easily trigger memories.
Objective 21| Distinguish between kinesthesis and the vestibular sense.